Goal and Objectives
A goal is an action statement written to be achieved on 1 year. The objectives are short term benchmarks that support the progress towards mastery of the goal. The objectives are meant to be achieved in a 2 - 4 month period and scaffold towards the goal.
A goal will be developed that addresses a specific need indicated in the Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) and based on the multiple sources of data used to write the PLAAFP.
It was stated in a 'Dear Colleague Guidance Letter' written by The Office of Special Education Programs on November 16, 2015 that:
- "An individualized education program (IEP) for an eligible child with a disability under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004, must be aligned with the State's academic content standards for the grade in which the child is enrolled."
- "IEP goals must be aligned with grade-level content standards for all children with disabilities."
- "The annual goals need not necessarily result in the child's reaching grade-level within the year covered by the IEP, but the goals should be sufficiently ambitious to help close the gap."
It is common practice to develop a S.M.A.R.T goal
- Specific: The goal is practiced the exact same way regardless of the adult professional collecting data on performance. The equipment used, distances, supports needed, time, and what success looks like.
- Measurable: This indicates what mastery will look like and the level of success. This is often recorded in percentage, and trials. Methods of collecting the data also needs to be included: observation, rubric, checklist, collaboration, data sheets, etc.
- Action Oriented: The student needs to perform a skill
- Realistic: The student needs to be able to safely perform the skill and should be in the range of capabilities.
- Time Sensitive: The goal is meant to be achieved in one year.
Parts of the Goal
Time (Computer software, often allows you to choose the date instead of writing it in the goal)
- The goal should be achieved in a year, one day prior to the activation of the IEP (the IEP meeting dates)
- (Example): The IEP meeting was held on Feb 18, 2019... The goal should be achieved by Feb 17, 2020.
- By Feb 17, 2020...
- The circumstances and/or supports in which the goal or objective will be measured. It consists of any accommodations the student needs to accomplish the goal.
- Provided.... or Given.... verbal cues, visual aids, hand gestures, physical guidance, physical prompts, auditory signals, preparatory positioning, sensory input, supported head or body positioning, peer modeling, adult demonstration, fading prompts, etc.
- The expected action or task for the student to perform.
- (Student's Name) will.../ (Example1): maintain a target heart rate for his/her age of between 132 (65% intensity) to 173 (85% intensity) beats per minute over a span of 10 minute. (Example2): visually attend to a peer standing a distance of 5 feet away, show his/her hands on verbal command, and catch an 8 inch ball tossed by using his/her arms and chest.
- The quantity of measurement to be determine a level of Performance success.
- Trials (4 out of 5), Percentage Accuracy (80% of the time), Percentage Increase or Decrease (20% from baseline data)
- The purpose of the goal and what the student will benefit from accomplishing the goal. The end result.
- in order to.../ (Example1): in order to enhance balance and bilateral coordination. (Example2): in order to improve cardiorespiratory endurance. (Example3): in order to enhance activity participation during a modified basketball game
Method of Measurement (Computer software, often allows you to list the measurements instead of writing it in the goal)
- The data collection tools used to determine progress and mastery.
- (Examples:)physical educator observation, anecdotal notes, checklist, rubric, portfolio, worksheets, student discourse, collaboration
Sample Goal and Objectives (Fictional goal written for a fictional student)
Student Profile: An eight year old in 3rd grade (see Sample Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance for more details)
Goal: Given the opportunity to become familiar with the distance, preparatory physical arm positioning, specific verbal cuing (right arm up, left foot steps forward, follow through by touching left knee), and instant verbal feedback; Samuel will use his right hand to throw a tennis ball with shoulder rotation for a distance of 20 feet to a peer's vicinity of potentially of catching it, 4 out of 5 trials in order to enhance force production and throwing technique.
Objective 1: Given preparatory physical arm positioning, specific verbal cuing (right arm up, left foot steps forward, follow through by touching left knee), and instant verbal feedback; Samuel will use his right hand to strike a suspended light weight balloon or beach ball elevated at an arms length height above his shoulder by stepping with opposition (left foot) and with right shoulder rotation, 4 out of 5 trials.
Objective 2: Given the opportunity to become familiar with the distance, preparatory physical arm positioning, specific verbal cuing (right arm up, left foot steps forward, follow through by touching left knee), and instant verbal feedback; Samuel will use his right hand to throw a tennis ball with shoulder rotation for a distance of 15 feet to a peer's vicinity of potentially of catching it, 4 out of 5 trials in order to enhance force production and throwing technique.
IEP Date: January 18, 2019 End Date: January 17, 2020
Method of Measurement: physical educator observation, anecdotal notes, checklist, and collaboration
Sample goals to guide thought (not to be copied and pasted directly; knowing that all students are unique)